$ pub install
This command installs all the dependencies listed in the
pubspec.yaml file in the current working directory, as well as
their transitive dependencies, to a
packages directory located next to the pubspec. For example:
$ pub install Dependencies installed!
Once the dependencies are installed, they may be referenced in Dart code. For
example, if a package depends on
pub install installs new dependencies, it writes a
lockfile to ensure that future installs will use the
same versions of those dependencies. Application packages should check in the
lockfile to source control; this ensures the application will use the exact same
versions of all dependencies for all developers and when deployed to production.
Library packages should not check in the lockfile, though, since they’re
expected to work with a range of dependency versions.
If a lockfile already exists,
pub install uses the versions of dependencies
locked in it if possible. If a dependency isn’t locked, pub will install the
latest version of that dependency that satisfies all the version
constraints. This is the primary difference
pub install and
pub update, which always tries to
install the latest versions of all dependencies.
Installing a new dependency
If a dependency is added to the pubspec and then
pub install is run, it will
install the new dependency and any of its transitive dependencies to the
packages directory. However, it won’t change the versions of any
already-installed dependencies unless that’s necessary to install the new
Uninstalling a dependency
If a dependency is removed from the pubspec and then
pub install is run, it
will remove the dependency from the
packages directory, thus making it
unavailable for importing. Any transitive dependencies of the removed dependency
will also be removed, as long as no remaining immediate dependencies also depend
on them. Removing a dependency will never change the versions of any
Every entrypoint in a package needs to be next to a
packages directory in order for it to import packages installed by Pub.
However, it’s not convenient to put every entrypoint at the top level of the
package alongside the main
packages directory. You may have example scripts or
tests that you want to be able to run from subdirectories.
pub install solves this issue by creating additional
that link to the main
packages directory at the root of your package. It
assumes your package is laid out according to the package layout
guide, and creates a linked
packages directory in
example/, as well as their subdirectories.
The system package cache
Dependencies are not stored directly in the
packages directory when they’re
installed. Dependencies downloaded over the internet, such as those from Git and
pub.dartlang.org, are stored in a system-wide cache
and linked to from the
packages directory. This means that if multiple
packages use the same version of the same dependency, it will only need to be
downloaded and stored locally once. It also means that it’s safe to delete the
packages directory without worrying about re-downloading packages.
By default, the system package cache is located in the
of your home directory. However, it may be configured by setting the
environment variable before running Pub.