Targets is an assignment manager and autograder intended for high school CS classes that uses GitHub to download assignment templates.
This README describes the fundamentals of using Targets. Full documentation intended for teachers and students is also available, though it is currently a draft and is subject to change.
targets get example downloads an example assignment from
You can download assignments you create with
targets get username/assignment which would download from
Starting in 0.7.0, Targets can download assignments from any zip archive that is publicly accessible on the web. Just use:
targets get assignment-name http://example.com/template.zip
If you want to use an assignment someone else has created (but have submissions sent to you), add your username and a colon.
targets get userA:userB/assignment downloads from
https://github.com/userB/targets-assignment but alters the
tests.dart file so that submissions are sent to
To create a new assignment template, you can download a fully commented version of an existing template with
targets init. This command will download the
example template I've created. You can add an assignment argument to download some other assignment.
targets init works almost exactly the same as
targets get, except that it leaves comments in the
tests.dart file untouched.
/** style comments are kept with either command, but unindented
/// comments are removed when using
targets get. The
example template includes many of these comments to explain the structure of
Once you've completed your assignment template, push it to a new GitHub repository. The repo name should start with
targets-. Students can then download your new assignment with
targets get user/id when
user is your GitHub username and
id is everything after the
targets- in your repo name.
Starting in 0.7.4, you can keep templates in subdirectories of GitHub repositories. For example, an ID like
user/assign/dirA/dirB refers to a Targets template in the subdirectory
dirA/targets-dirB within the GitHub repo at
https://github.com/user/assign. The assignment will be downloaded to a directory called
assign-dirA-dirB. You should use this for the
id field of
tests.dart. This allows you to add a Targets template to an existing repository or include multiple Targets templates in the same repository.
If you would prefer to keep your assignment templates private, you can instead put the template in a zip file (with the root of the template at the root of the zip) and share the URL with your students. Note that in this case, you cannot share the same zip with other teachers as Targets will not modify the owner property in
tests.dart. If you want to share assignments, post them to GitHub (it also makes them easier for your students to download).
Students can run the tests on their assignment with
targets check and submit with
targets submit (after first running
targets setup). Student submissions are validated with a Google account (the primary email of the account must match the one their enter in
Submissions are made to the GitHub user or organization name set in the
owner variable of
tests.dart. Once submissions have been uploaded, you can view and download them here by logging into your GitHub account.
Once you download a zip of submissions, you can run tests on all them with
targets batch. Just put a version of your assignment template with more rigorous tests into a folder called
template within the extracted zip file.
targets batch will output a log of tests on all submissions to
Starting in 0.7.3, you can download submissions from the command line with
targets submissions username/assignment. This will require that you create an OAuth key for GitHub, but then you can set up a directory to run
targets batch with just one command.
Additionally, if you open the submission viewer in Dartium, you can paste in code from a
tests.dart file to run tests of Dart code without downloading submissions. Please note that this feature works best with very simple assignments. When all code is in one file, it should work fine. It should theoretically work with multiple files, as long as they are all uploaded with students' submissions, but things may break. If the web grader does not work, just download the zip and use
For the time being, the submission service is free of charge. The server is running on "unlimited" shared hosting, so I shouldn't have any issues keeping it free, unless demand is such that I go beyond whatever my host deems "unlimited" to be. To keep the server lightweight, all submissions will be deleted after 30 days. Make sure to download the zip archive within that window or your students will have to resubmit.
Starting in 0.6.0, Targets supports easy submission of student code to Moss for similarity detection. You can run
targets moss on any set of student submissions that you can run
targets batch on. Once you enter the command, you'll be prompted for the language your students' code is in, the file extension to submit, and your Moss account ID. In addition to student code, Targets will also upload code in
template to Moss to improve accuracy by providing a baseline. Once Moss responds, your web browser will open with the results.
Targets is best suited for testing Dart code. However, version 0.2.3 added support for
IOTarget, which lets you test output for given input sent to a program. To see an example of how
targets init java-example. I've tested simple examples on both OSX and Windows, but testing more complex programs may result in some issues, particularly cross-platform. If you use
IOTarget, make sure to use
targets check on a completed version of your template on each OS that your students may use.
Prior to 0.7.2,
IOTarget tests could not be scored. With the new properties for
IOTarget extends) in 0.7.2, each
IOTarget can add an all-or-nothing amount of points to the total score.
For obvious reasons,
IOTarget is not supported by the web grader, though
targets batch should work fine.
Since targets is primarily intended for high school CS courses (there's much better software out there for universities), you may not want your students to have to access targets from the command line, both because command line programs can be daunting to high school students and because your school's IT department may not want to provide command line access to students.
To allow student use of targets outside of the command line, version 0.5.0 adds the
targets gui command. This starts a local web socket server on the student's machine and opens their web browser to darttargets.com/gui. From here, students can download assignments, run tests, and submit their work without touching the command line. There's even a button to upgrade targets through pub (though this may not work on all setups).
Downloading templates from the zip files using the web console is supported as of 0.7.6.
By default, the local server is hosted on port 7620 (fun fact: this number was reached by adding the ASCII codes of the letters in "targets" and multiplying by 10). You can customize it with
targets gui #, where # is your preferred port. If using the default interface URL, the default port will automatically be changed in the page that launches by adding "?port=#" to the end.
The source of the web interface is included in the pub package and on GitHub if you want to customize it. To have Targets launch your new version, use
targets gui # http://yourinterface.com. You can put your custom in a shell script to allow your students to launch the interface with one click.
In addition to a few small templates hosted on the
dart-targets GitHub, I'm currently developing a large sample project for Targets in which students build an Enigma machine simulator and then attempt to break the code. The project is hosted here. Draft templates are currently available in Dart and Java. A Python version is under development.
You can install targets with:
pub global activate targets
You may be prompted by pub to add a directory to your path. Obviously, Dart should also be on your path. Previous versions of Targets required Git to download assignment templates, but, starting in 0.7.0, templates are instead downloaded from the zip archive of the project that GitHub provides.
The code is available on GitHub under the revised BSD license.
IOTarget.makeMultithat broke tests on
InputOutputobjects with arguments.
!before the file
targets get dart-targets/enigma/javafor an example
targets submissionscommand, which allows you to download student submissions from the console
pointsto a value greater than 0 to add that many points of the test returns true.
uncountedoption for all targets. Set this property to true and the test is counted as extra credit.
IOTargetscan be scored, though their points are all-or-nothing.
InputOutputobjects (used for creating
IOTargettests) now have optional parameters for
uncountedin their constructors
targets templatecommand that works like
targets init, but downloads to a folder called
template(for later use with
targets distributecommand which takes a folder set up for
targets batchand creates a folder for each submission that contains the student code on top of the template (if you want to manually run anything on student code that requires template files)
targets getto eliminate the need for Git to be installed on student machines.
targets getif you don't want to host your assignments on GitHub.
helpers.dartare now re-added before every
targets submitcommand to ensure students do not modify them
IOTargetJava helper methods should now properly compile classes in packages.
IOTargetpre-test commands (usually compilation) now halt the testing process, even if there are other tests left to run. Previously (in 0.6.0), errors in compilation only failed the one test.
targets batchto [Moss][http://moss.stanford.edu] for similarity detection
fileslist in your
targets batchcommand, which allows for testing multiple submisssions at once.
IOTarget, which allows testing of other languages. For an example in Java, download the
You can install the package from the command line:
$ pub global activate targets
The package has the following executables:
Add this to your package's pubspec.yaml file:
dependencies: targets: ^0.7.9+1
You can install packages from the command line:
$ pub get
Alternatively, your editor might support
Check the docs for your editor to learn more.
Now in your Dart code, you can use:
import 'package:targets/gui.dart'; import 'package:targets/helpers_text.dart'; import 'package:targets/moss.dart'; import 'package:targets/student.dart'; import 'package:targets/submit.dart'; import 'package:targets/targets_cli.dart'; import 'package:targets/teacher.dart'; import 'package:targets/tester_text.dart'; import 'package:targets/utils.dart';
|0.7.9+1||May 20, 2015|
|0.7.9||May 18, 2015|
|0.7.8||May 14, 2015|
|0.7.7||May 9, 2015|
|0.7.6||Apr 28, 2015|
|0.7.5||Apr 25, 2015|
|0.7.4+1||Apr 18, 2015|
|0.7.4||Apr 18, 2015|
|0.7.3||Apr 11, 2015|
|0.7.2||Apr 4, 2015|
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We analyzed this package on Aug 10, 2018, and provided a score, details, and suggestions below. Analysis was completed with status tool failures using:
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pub upgrade failed with the following output:
ERR: The current Dart SDK version is 2.0.0. Because targets depends on args >=0.2.8+2 <1.4.4 which requires SDK version <2.0.0, version solving failed.
Fix platform conflicts.
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Package is pre-v1 release.
While there is nothing inherently wrong with versions of
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Maintain an example.
Create a short demo in the
example/ directory to show how to use this package. Common file name patterns include:
example.dart or you could also use
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